KPP61 Environmental Catalysis

Module code: KPP61


ECTS Credit Points:
20

Module Type:
Compulsory


Year:
2nd

Language: Greek

Module general description:

Learning Outcomes: After completing this module, students will be expected to be able to,
- Describe the formation of the main pollutants emitted from mobile and stationary sources (CO2, NOx, SO2, VOCs, N2O) and explain the necessity of controlling their emissions by presenting the negative impact these pollutants have on the Environment.
- State the main catalytic and non-catalytic methods (both, primary and secondary measures) for controlling these emissions and describe their operation.
- Propose state of the Art or potentially promising catalysts for the catalytic emission control processes and to justify their choice based on the requirements that a catalyst should fulfill for specific control process, pollutant and source.
- Describe the established as well as the potentially promising applications of the catalytic combustion for either the primary or secondary emission control of atmospheric pollutants such as the NOx or the volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
- Describe the impact of emitted chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and the climate change and give examples of catalytic and non-catalytic processes which are used to destroy or to exploit existing CFCs stocks.
- Define basic concepts in the field of photocatalysis and describe photocatalytic processes for the processing of wastewater and potable water treatment.
- Describe the basics of the operation of a petroleum refinery and state the main products.
- Describe the chemistry, operational conditions and requirements from the catalysts for the main catalytic processes in a petroleum refinery (reforming, isomerization, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrotreatment).
- Discuss the potential impact of biofuels on the environment and describe the production of the main biofuels.
- Explain the necessity of introducing hydrogen to the energy balance of our planet and state the relevant problems which are currently opposing the ‘hydrogen economy’.
- Describe the chemistry, operational conditions and requirements from the catalysts for the catalytic processes for the production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons (steam or CO2 reforming, catalytic partial oxidation and autothermal reforming).
- Describe processes for the production of hydrogen which are based on the electrolytic, thermochemical or photocatalytic decomposition of water.
- Present arguments and specific examples regarding the role of catalysis (mainly, heterogeneous and photocatalysis) on the protection of the environment.

Subjects covered:
1. Catalytic Processes for Pollution Control
2. Catalytic Production of Environmentally Friendly Fuels

Catalytic Air Pollution Control
Introduction (a brief outline of the course and of the impact of the major pollutants in the quality of our environment, a description of the major expected achievements from the course). Control of emissions from mobile sources (origin of emitted pollutants, catalytic treatment of exhaust gases, catalytic converters, basic characteristics of three–way catalytic converters, remaining problems and future trends, catalytic converters for diesel engines). Control of the NOx emission from stationary sources (origin and formation of nitrogen oxides, methods for the control of NOx emission, selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 (NH3-SCR), catalysts for the NH3-SCR process, kinetics and mechanism of the NH3-SCR process, industrial application of the NH3-SCR process, selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrocarbons (CxHy-SCR), catalysts for the CxHy-SCR process, reducing agents for the CxHy-SCR process). Control of the VOCs emission from stationary sources (origin of VOCs and technologies for their emission control, catalytic combustion, catalysts for the catalytic combustion of VOCs, kinetics and mechanism of the VOCs catalytic combustion, the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons). Catalytic combustion (application fields of catalytic combustion, NOx emission control from gas turbines, the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines, catalysts for the catalytic combustion process, industrial applications of catalytic combustion). Control of the use and emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (origin and environmental impact of CFCs, catalytic transformations of CFCs, the addition of HF, the replacement of halogen, isomerisation, differential and uniform distribution, hydrodehalogenation, destruction of CFCs, synthesis and use of alternative compounds, exploitation and treatment of the HCl by product). Ozone control in airliners (processes for controlling ozone levels inside the aircraft, catalysts for the catalytic conversion of ozone and their deactivation). CO2 and N2O emission control (origin and formation of CO2 and N2O, methods for the CO2 emission control, CO2 valorisation, dry methane reforming, the SPARG process, the HYDROCARB and CARNOL processes, photocatalytic decomposition of CO2, methods for the N2O emission control, technologies for the N2O removal from flue gases, kinetics and mechanism of the N2O catalytic decomposition, industrial applications of the N2O catalytic decomposition: production of adipic acid, production of nitric acid, combustion units, mobile sources). Control of SO2 emission from stationary sources (origin and formation of SO2, non-catalytic processes for the SO2 emission control: dry, semi-dry and wet processes for the SO2 removal from flu gases, catalytic processes for the SO2 emission control: catalytic oxidation of SO2, catalytic reduction of SO2 with CO, methane or H2).

Catalytic Treatment of Liquid Wastes and Water
Introduction to the heterogeneous photocatalysis (brief description of the process and its importance, comparison with the homogeneous photocatalysis). Photocatalytic action of semiconductors (description of semiconductors, general mechanism of a photocatalytic reaction, quantum yield). Mechanism of the photocatalytic decomposition of organic and inorganic pollutants in the presence of semiconductors (conversion of organic pollutants, factors influencing the photocatalytic decomposition of organic pollutants, conversion of inorganic pollutants). Catalysts for the photocatalytic decomposition of organic and inorganic pollutants (specifications of an efficient photocatalyst, factors influencing the performance of a photocatalyst, platinization, doping). Photocatalytic reactors (comparative assessment of the various types of photocatalytic reactors, description of the major types of photocatalytic reactors, technical characteristics of the design and operation of photocatalytic reactors). Catalytic processes for the treatment of potable water (ozonization, denitrification).

Catalytic Production of Environmentally Friendly Fuels
A brief description of a refinery and its products (flow chart of a refinery, refinery products). Catalytic reforming (flow chart and description of the process, the chemistry of catalytic reforming, factors influencing the yields and quality of the products, future trends in catalytic reforming). Isomerisation (flow chart and description of the process, the chemistry of isomerisation, factors influencing the yields and quality of the products, isomerisation of light petroleum fractions, future trends). Fuel production by the catalytic pyrolysis of heavy oil fractions (flow chart and description of the process, the chemistry of catalytic pyrolysis of heavy oils, description of the feed, the hydrocarbons and the heteroatoms in the feed, characterisation of the FCC feed, the influence of the feed properties on the yields and quality of the FCC products, the catalysts of the catalytic pyrolysis, influence of operation conditions on the FCC products, the future of the FCC process). Hydrotreatment of petroleum fractions (flow chart and description of the process, the chemistry of hydrotreatment, hydrotreatment catalysts, operation conditions). Production of environmentally friendly fuels in the refinery (pollutants emitted from vehicles, modification of the gasoline composition, future trends, bio-fuels). Production, uses and necessity of hydrogen (availability and hydrogen production processes, the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, the necessity of adding hydrogen to the energy balance of our planet, physicochemical properties of hydrogen). Steam reforming of hydrocarbons for the production of hydrogen (technologies for hydrogen production, catalytic processes for the reforming of hydrocarbons, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, description of the process, thermodynamics of the reforming reaction, catalysts for the steam reforming and their deactivation, kinetics of the reforming reaction, detailed description of the methane steam reforming, process yield). Autothermal reforming for hydrogen production (description of the process, catalysts for the autothermal reforming of fuels, thermodynamics of the autothermal reforming, hydrogen yield, comparison of the operational parameters and the yields of the natural gas steam reforming and autothermal reforming processes). Water decomposition for hydrogen production (electrolytic decomposition of water, basic principles, description of the technology, thermochemical decomposition of water, basic principles, the role of catalysis in the thermochemical decomposition of water, flow charts and description of the thermochamical cycles S-I and UT-3, photocatalytic decomposition of water, description of processes for the photocatalytic decomposition of water, specifications of the photocatalysts, performance of photocatalytic systems based on semiconductors).

Learning Material:
The HOU publications can be viewed
here.

Teaching Method: Distance education with five Contact Sessions held at weekends during the academic year

Evaluation: Completion of five written assignments during the academic year, the average grade of which constitute a 30 percent of each student's grade, if a pass is obtained in the final or repetitive examination. Final exam grades constitute a 70 percent of the students' final course grade. More information is available
here.